Title of “Chancellor”

Chancellors for Henry I:
William Giffard, bishop of Winchester; Rodger, bishop of Salisbury; Waldric, bishop of Laon; Ranulf; Geoffrey Rufus, bishop of Durham; and Robert de Sigillo, bishop of London.

Chancellors for Henry II:
Thomas Becket, arch-deacon of Canterbury; Geoffrey Ridel, arch-deacon of Canterbury; Raoul de Wanneville (or Warneville), treasurer of York; Geoffrey, ( Henry’s illg. Son), bishop-elect of Lincoln- and Walter of Coutances, arch-deacon of Oxford.

Chancellors for Richard I:
William de Longchamps, count of Poitous; Eustace, dean of Salisbury and (possibly) Richard de Luce.

Chancellors for John:
Hubert Walter, arch-bishop of Canterbury; Walter de Gray, bishop of Worcester; Richard Marsh, arch-deacon of Northumberland; and Ralph Neville, dean of Lichfield.

Chancellors for Henry III:
There were over twenty chancellors during the reign of Henry III (1227-1272), too many to list here. The list begins with Richard Marsh (above), and ends with Richard Middleton, arch-deacon of Northumberland.


Title of “Justiciar”

Chief, or Prime Minister of England, until the late 1220’s. Also known as “Justiciar of the Realm,” a title which was created by Henry I, continued by Henry II, and then went dormant.

Justiciars for Henry I:
Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, was Justiciar in the reign of Henry I.

One Ralf Basset held the title of Justiciar about 1116A.D., as did his son, Richard.
Justiciars for Stephen:
Roger of Salisbury

Justiciars for Henry II:
Robert, Earl of Leicester, Richard de Luci and Ranulf de Glanville.

Justiciars for Richard I:
Ranulf de Granville; William de Mandville, Earl of Essex; Hugh de Puiset, Bishop of Durham; Willian de Longchamps, Bishop of Ely; Walter of Coutances, Arch-Bishop of Rouen; Hubert Walter, Bishop of Salisbury; Geoffrey Fitz Peter.

Justiciars for John:
Geoffrey Fitz Peter; Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester; Hubert de Burg, Earl of Kent.

Justiciars for Henry III:
Hubert de Burgh (above); Stephen Segrave; Hugh Bigod; Hugh le Despenser; Philip Basset.

Hubert de Burgh was created Chief Justiciar by Henry III. As a result of abuses, the title went vacant. The power of Justiciar passed on to the Chancellor.


Title of “Marshal”

The original form of the word, “marechal”, or head groom, was in charge of the stables under the constable. After the King, he had command of the army, and the highest military rank. The marshal was responsible for the organization of the troops in the field, retainers, banners, insignia, crests, badges, and standards, which identified and distinguished the combatants. These tasks evolved into an important role in the diplomatic decisions, negotiations in the field, and in declarations of war. The organization of coronations, royal baptisms, marriages, and funerals devolved upon the marshal as well. Additionally, the marshal became the head of the College of Arms.

The first marshal was Gilbert (no surname) , followed by his son John, who took the title of “John fitz Gilbert le Marechal.” Also known as John le Marechal and John Marshal, he secured the title as hereditary.

His son, William Marshal, (Guillaume le Marechal), lord of Chapstow Castle, earl of Pembroke, was a member of the royal council under Richard Coeur de Lion, and later, his brother, John Lackland. William Marshal played a major role in the negotiation of the Great Charter. He was, at various times, sheriff, assistant justiciar, and regent.

Titles belonged to ministeriales or members of the royal household. While referred to as the king’s servants, humble domestic titles were held by some of the most important men in the land.